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ATP in Use

This animation shows two examples of how the cell uses energy from ATP. It is the sixth of six animations about cellular respiration.

Glycolysis

This animation shows how glycolysis converts glucose into pyruvate through a series of enzyme reactions. It is the first of six animations about cellular respiration.

Pyruvate Dehydrogenase

This animation shows how the pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex converts pyruvate into acetyl-CoA. It is the second of six animations about cellular respiration.

Citric Acid Cycle

This animation shows the reactions of the citric acid cycle, which splits off carbon atoms and generates energy-rich reduced forms of cofactor molecules. It is the third of six animations about cellular respiration.

Electron Transport Chain

This animation shows how the enzyme complexes of the electron transport chain harvest energy from cofactor molecules to pump protons across the mitochondrial membrane and establish a chemical gradient. It is the fourth of six animations about cellular respiration.

ATP Synthesis

This animation shows how the proton gradient across the mitochondrial membrane powers the ATP synthase enzyme to make ATP. It is the fifth of six animations about cellular respiration.

Biology of SARS-CoV-2

This four-part animation series explores the biology of the virus SARS-CoV-2, which has caused a global pandemic of the disease COVID-19.

Can blood from coronavirus survivors treat the newly ill?

Hospitals are gearing up to test if a century-old treatment used to fight off flu and measles outbreaks in the days before vaccines, and tried more recently against SARS and Ebola, just might work for COVID-19, too: using blood donated from patients who’ve recovered.