This animation shows how the enzyme complexes of the electron transport chain harvest energy from cofactor molecules to pump protons across the mitochondrial membrane and establish a chemical gradient. It is the fourth of six animations about cellular respiration.
This animation shows the reactions of the citric acid cycle, which splits off carbon atoms and generates energy-rich reduced forms of cofactor molecules. It is the third of six animations about cellular respiration.
The COVID-19 pandemic has spotlighted the importance of having a scientifically literate public. In this article, Pennsylvania educator Bob Cooper unpacks how to utilize BioInteractive's suite of infectious disease resources to teach students scientific literacy.