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ATP Synthesis

This animation shows how the proton gradient across the mitochondrial membrane powers the ATP synthase enzyme to make ATP. It is the third of three animations about cellular respiration.

Electron Transport Chain

This animation shows how the enzyme complexes of the electron transport chain harvest energy from cofactor molecules to pump protons across the mitochondrial membrane and establish a chemical gradient. It is the second of three animations about cellular respiration.

Citric Acid Cycle

This animation shows the reactions of the citric acid cycle, which splits off carbon atoms and generates energy-rich reduced forms of cofactor molecules. It is the first of three animations about cellular respiration.

Inheritance and Mutations in a Single-Gene Disorder

This activity builds on information presented in the short film Genes as Medicine. Students interpret actual pedigrees to determine the inheritance pattern of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), an inherited form of blindness.

Red Tattoo

This activity explores an image of tattoo ink particles inside cells, which serves as a phenomenon for learning about the structure and color of human skin.

Coloration in Vertebrates

This activity explores images of animals with a mutation that affects coloration, which serve as phenomena for learning about skin color genetics and evolution.

Cancer Cell Invasion

This activity explores an image of tumor cells invading muscle tissue, which serves as a phenomenon for learning about cancer, mutations, and cell division.

Human Origins

This interactive module allows students to examine fossils of early humans and compare them to modern primates.

Cystic Fibrosis Mechanism and Treatment

This animation shows how mutations in an ion channel protein lead to the genetic disease cystic fibrosis. The animation also discusses how research on this protein has been used to develop treatments for the disease.