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Citric Acid Cycle

This animation shows the reactions of the citric acid cycle, which splits off carbon atoms and generates energy-rich reduced forms of cofactor molecules. It is the first of three animations about cellular respiration.

Electron Transport Chain

This animation shows how the enzyme complexes of the electron transport chain harvest energy from cofactor molecules to pump protons across the mitochondrial membrane and establish a chemical gradient. It is the second of three animations about cellular respiration.

ATP Synthesis

This animation shows how the proton gradient across the mitochondrial membrane powers the ATP synthase enzyme to make ATP. It is the third of three animations about cellular respiration.

The Art of Hiding

This activity explores an image of a moth with unusual markings on its wings, which serves as a phenomenon for learning about mimicry and adaptation.

The Science of an Extreme Animal Athlete

This video follows biologist Shane Campbell-Staton, who is studying the adaptations that allow deer mice living at high elevations to stay warm and active during the winter.

Wildebeest Populations

This activity explores an image of a wildebeest herd on the Serengeti, which serves as a phenomenon for learning about population dynamics and wildlife management.