This animation shows how the enzyme complexes of the electron transport chain harvest energy from cofactor molecules to pump protons across the mitochondrial membrane and establish a chemical gradient. It is the second of three animations about cellular respiration.
This animation shows the reactions of the citric acid cycle, which splits off carbon atoms and generates energy-rich reduced forms of cofactor molecules. It is the first of three animations about cellular respiration.
This activity analyzes a published scientific figure from a study that investigated the biological importance of sleep. In this study, scientists tested whether sleep plays a role in removing harmful substances from the brain.
This tutorial describes the structure and function of the cancer-causing protein BCR-ABL. It also shows how drugs targeting this protein can help treat chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a cancer of the white blood cells.