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ATP Synthesis

This animation shows how the proton gradient across the mitochondrial membrane powers the ATP synthase enzyme to make ATP. It is the third of three animations about cellular respiration.

Electron Transport Chain

This animation shows how the enzyme complexes of the electron transport chain harvest energy from cofactor molecules to pump protons across the mitochondrial membrane and establish a chemical gradient. It is the second of three animations about cellular respiration.

Citric Acid Cycle

This animation shows the reactions of the citric acid cycle, which splits off carbon atoms and generates energy-rich reduced forms of cofactor molecules. It is the first of three animations about cellular respiration.

Genes as Medicine

This film describes the scientific principles and the research efforts involved in the development of a gene therapy for a congenital form of blindness, and how a young patient benefited from this medical breakthrough.

Fruit Fly Courtship

This video shows real footage of courtship behavior of fruit flies with wing spots.

X Inactivation

This animation shows how X chromosomes are randomly switched off in most female mammals.

Ubiquitin and the Proteasome

This animation shows how proteins in the cell are tagged for disposal by ubiquitin and then degraded by the proteasome.

Asexual vs. Sexual Reproduction

This video provides a demonstration of differences between sexual reproduction, which involves recombination through meiosis, and asexual reproduction, which does not.