This animation shows how the enzyme complexes of the electron transport chain harvest energy from cofactor molecules to pump protons across the mitochondrial membrane and establish a chemical gradient. It is the fourth of six animations about cellular respiration.
This animation shows the reactions of the citric acid cycle, which splits off carbon atoms and generates energy-rich reduced forms of cofactor molecules. It is the third of six animations about cellular respiration.
This video describes the case of a patient with retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a progressive disease that leads to blindness, and how physician-scientist Dr. Ed Stone approached the search for the causal mutation.