This animation shows how the enzyme complexes of the electron transport chain harvest energy from cofactor molecules to pump protons across the mitochondrial membrane and establish a chemical gradient. It is the second of three animations about cellular respiration.
This animation shows the reactions of the citric acid cycle, which splits off carbon atoms and generates energy-rich reduced forms of cofactor molecules. It is the first of three animations about cellular respiration.
This video describes the work of biologists Steve Palumbi and Megan Morikawa, who use field and controlled experiments to understand the mechanisms that allow some corals to tolerate a greater amount of heat stress than other corals.