This animation shows the reactions of the citric acid cycle, which splits off carbon atoms and generates energy-rich reduced forms of cofactor molecules. It is the first of three animations about cellular respiration.
This animation shows how the enzyme complexes of the electron transport chain harvest energy from cofactor molecules to pump protons across the mitochondrial membrane and establish a chemical gradient. It is the second of three animations about cellular respiration.
This activity accompanies the video Seed Dispersal and Habitat Fragmentation. Students use data from published studies to understand patterns of seed dispersal and apply these ideas to the design of a conservation area.