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ATP Synthesis

This animation shows how the proton gradient across the mitochondrial membrane powers the ATP synthase enzyme to make ATP. It is the third of three animations about cellular respiration.

Electron Transport Chain

This animation shows how the enzyme complexes of the electron transport chain harvest energy from cofactor molecules to pump protons across the mitochondrial membrane and establish a chemical gradient. It is the second of three animations about cellular respiration.

Citric Acid Cycle

This animation shows the reactions of the citric acid cycle, which splits off carbon atoms and generates energy-rich reduced forms of cofactor molecules. It is the first of three animations about cellular respiration.

The Day the Mesozoic Died

This film tells the story of the scientific quest to explain one of the greatest, long-standing scientific mysteries: the sudden disappearance of the dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous period.

Greenhouse Effect

This animation provides an overview of the greenhouse effect, a process that warms the atmosphere and surface of Earth.

The Geologic Carbon Cycle

This animation explores how carbon enters the atmosphere and can be removed through a series of chemical reactions.

Ubiquitin and the Proteasome

This animation shows how proteins in the cell are tagged for disposal by ubiquitin and then degraded by the proteasome.