This animation shows how the enzyme complexes of the electron transport chain harvest energy from cofactor molecules to pump protons across the mitochondrial membrane and establish a chemical gradient. It is the fourth of six animations about cellular respiration.
This animation shows the reactions of the citric acid cycle, which splits off carbon atoms and generates energy-rich reduced forms of cofactor molecules. It is the third of six animations about cellular respiration.
In order to develop complex scientific explanations, students need to have many opportunities to grapple with a concept. In this Educator Voices article, hear how Amy Fassler uses a sequence of resources in a process called “curriculum spiraling.”