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Citric Acid Cycle

This animation shows the reactions of the citric acid cycle, which splits off carbon atoms and generates energy-rich reduced forms of cofactor molecules. It is the first of three animations about cellular respiration.

ATP Synthesis

This animation shows how the proton gradient across the mitochondrial membrane powers the ATP synthase enzyme to make ATP. It is the third of three animations about cellular respiration.

Electron Transport Chain

This animation shows how the enzyme complexes of the electron transport chain harvest energy from cofactor molecules to pump protons across the mitochondrial membrane and establish a chemical gradient. It is the second of three animations about cellular respiration.

Nutrient Cycling in the Serengeti

In this activity, students engage with an example from the Serengeti ecosystem to illustrate the exchange of nutrients between plants, animals, and the environment. 

Sodium Channel Evolution in Electric Fish

This activity guides the analysis of a published scientific figure from a study that investigated how gene duplication contributed to the evolution of electric fish.

Winogradsky Column: Microbial Ecology in a Bottle

This interactive module consists of a virtual Winogradsky column, which can be used to explore the diversity of microbes, microbial metabolic strategies, and geochemical gradients found in sediments.

Pelvic Evolution in Sticklebacks

This activity guides the analysis of a published scientific figure from a study that used SNP genotyping to identify the mutations that result in morphological differences in stickleback fish.

“Fixing” Gene Expression

In this hands-on activity, students review the steps of eukaryotic gene expression and learn how this knowledge can be used to treat different genetic conditions. The activity reinforces concepts covered in the Click & Learn “Central Dogma and Genetic Medicine.”

Monkey Social Status and Immune Response

This activity guides the analysis of a published scientific figure from a study on how social status affects the expression of genes involved in immune system processes.

Stalking the Genetic Basis of a Trait

This activity supports the film Popped Secret: The Mysterious Origin of Corn. Students analyze data on the expression of the tb1 gene to explain how variations in this gene played a role in the evolution of corn.