This animation shows how the enzyme complexes of the electron transport chain harvest energy from cofactor molecules to pump protons across the mitochondrial membrane and establish a chemical gradient. It is the fourth of six animations about cellular respiration.
This animation shows the reactions of the citric acid cycle, which splits off carbon atoms and generates energy-rich reduced forms of cofactor molecules. It is the third of six animations about cellular respiration.
This film explores the adaptation of anole lizards (genus Anolis) to habitats common across the islands of the Caribbean. The anoles are excellent examples of adaptive radiation, convergent evolution, and speciation through reproductive isolation.