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Citric Acid Cycle

This animation shows the reactions of the citric acid cycle, which splits off carbon atoms and generates energy-rich reduced forms of cofactor molecules. It is the first of three animations about cellular respiration.

Electron Transport Chain

This animation shows how the enzyme complexes of the electron transport chain harvest energy from cofactor molecules to pump protons across the mitochondrial membrane and establish a chemical gradient. It is the second of three animations about cellular respiration.

ATP Synthesis

This animation shows how the proton gradient across the mitochondrial membrane powers the ATP synthase enzyme to make ATP. It is the third of three animations about cellular respiration.

The Origin of Species: Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree

This film explores the adaptation of anole lizards (genus Anolis) to habitats common across the islands of the Caribbean. The anoles are excellent examples of adaptive radiation, convergent evolution, and speciation through reproductive isolation.

Ubiquitin and the Proteasome

This animation shows how proteins in the cell are tagged for disposal by ubiquitin and then degraded by the proteasome.

Kidney Function

This video explores how the kidneys filter blood to remove wastes and excess fluid from the body, maintaining a healthy balance of water and salts in the blood.

Heart Function

This animation provides an overview of the structure and function of the human heart.