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Citric Acid Cycle

This animation shows the reactions of the citric acid cycle, which splits off carbon atoms and generates energy-rich reduced forms of cofactor molecules. It is the first of three animations about cellular respiration.

ATP Synthesis

This animation shows how the proton gradient across the mitochondrial membrane powers the ATP synthase enzyme to make ATP. It is the third of three animations about cellular respiration.

Electron Transport Chain

This animation shows how the enzyme complexes of the electron transport chain harvest energy from cofactor molecules to pump protons across the mitochondrial membrane and establish a chemical gradient. It is the second of three animations about cellular respiration.

Biology of SARS-CoV-2

This three-part animation series explores the biology of the virus SARS-CoV-2, which has caused a global pandemic of the disease COVID-19.

Red Tattoo

This activity explores an image of tattoo ink particles inside cells, which serves as a phenomenon for learning about the structure and color of human skin.

Coloration in Vertebrates

This activity explores images of animals with a mutation that affects coloration, which serve as phenomena for learning about skin color genetics and evolution.

Human Origins

This interactive module allows students to examine fossils of early humans and compare them to modern primates.

Tiktaalik Fossil: Skull

This model shows the skull of Tiktaalik, a vertebrate that existed about 375 million years ago and had features of both fish and tetrapods (four-limbed animals).

Tiktaalik Fossil: Body

This model shows the skeleton of Tiktaalik, a vertebrate that existed about 375 million years ago and had features of both fish and tetrapods (four-limbed animals).

Tiktaalik Fossil: Pectoral Fin

This model shows the pectoral fin bones of Tiktaalik, a vertebrate that existed about 375 million years ago and had features of both fish and tetrapods (four-limbed animals).

Tiktaalik Fossil: Pelvis

This model shows the pelvis of Tiktaalik, a vertebrate that existed about 375 million years ago and had features of both fish and tetrapods (four-limbed animals).