# Spreadsheet Tutorial 4: *t*-Test

## Resource Type

## Description

In this activity, students explore different ways of calculating *t*-values and performing *t*-tests using built-in functions in Excel or Google Sheets. Students apply what they learned by plotting beak size measurements of Galapágos finches collected before and after a drought.

This activity covers different methods for performing *t*-tests, including how to calculate *t*-values manually, a table of critical values of *t*, and how to use the built-in TTEST function to perform a *t*-test. It also includes doing a *t*-test using Excel’s Analysis Toolpak.

## Student Learning Targets

Use a spreadsheet program to perform a *t*-test to determine if two sets of measurements are significantly different.

#### Estimated Time

#### Key Terms

alpha level, Galapágos finches, null hypothesis, paired *t*-test, *t*-value

#### Terms of Use

The resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International license. No rights are granted to use HHMI’s or BioInteractive’s names or logos independent from this Resource or in any derivative works.

#### Version History

Math.N-Q.1, Math.F-LE.5, Math.A-SSE.3, Math.A-REI.3, Math.S-ID.5, Math.S-IC.3; MP1, MP2, MP4, MP5

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